Anytime Game-Theoretic Planning with Safe and Active Information Gathering on Humans’ Latent States for Human-Centered Robots
International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) 2021
A human-centered robot needs to reason about the cognitive limitations and potential irrationality of its human partner to achieve seamless interactions. This paper proposes a novel anytime game-theoretic planning framework that integrates iterative reasoning models, partially observable Markov decision process, and Monte-Carlo belief tree search for robot behavioral planning. Our planner equips a robot with the ability to reason about its human partner’s latent cognitive states(bounded intelligence and irrationality) and enables the robot to actively learn these latent states to better maximize its utility. Furthermore, our planner handles safety explicitly by enforcing change constraints. We validate our approach in an autonomous driving domain where our behavioral planner and a low-level motion controller hierarchically control an autonomous car to negotiate traffic merges. Simulations and user studies are conducted to show our planner’s effectiveness.