Quantum bits

Quantum bits

The underlying qubit technology plays dominant role in a architecture and performance of quantum system. Each device poses strong limitation on the utilization of the qubits such as on how to hold qubits in place, on controlling and measurements methods and for determining the sequence of the operations and measurements that algorithm requires. As a result currently there is no dominant quantum technology that can address all these challenging issues. Here are the quantum technologies currently being used for creating qubits — 1) superconducting qubits, 2) trapped ions qubits, 3) photonic qubits, 4) neutral atoms qubits, 5) semiconductor qubits, 6) topological qubits. So far, superconducting and trapped ions qubits are furthest developed quantum technologies. Because of maturity level of current qubits technology, there are actual problems that are hindering quantum systems exploitation for real-world problems such as i) quantum devices generally require cooling about to absolute zero ii) are very sensitive to any external perturbations of the atoms that can cause a superposition state to collapse or led to the decoherence; iii) high qubit error rates in large systems. Thus, at this moment the doors are open for designing new materials from the scratch aiming constructing new qubits based on new phenomena and technologies.