Probing inhomogeneous doping in overlapped graphene grain boundaries by Raman spectroscopy
Carbon 80, 513-522
The effect of grain boundaries and wrinkles on the electrical properties of polycrystalline graphene is pronounced. Here we investigate the stitching between grains of polycrystalline graphene, specifically, overlapping of layers at the boundaries, grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and subsequently doped by the oxidized Cu substrate. We analyze overlapped regions between 60 and 220 nm wide via Raman spectroscopy, and find that some of these overlapped boundaries contain AB–stacked bilayers. The Raman spectra from the overlapped grain boundaries are distinctly different from bilayer graphene and exhibit splitting of the G band peak. The degree of splitting, peak widths, as well as peak intensities depend on the width of the overlap. We attribute these features to inhomogeneous doping by charge carriers (holes) across the overlapped regions via the oxidized Cu substrate. As a result, the Fermi level at the overlapped grain boundaries lies between 0.3 and 0.4 eV below the charge neutrality point. Our results suggest an enhancement of electrical conductivity across overlapped grain boundaries, similar to previously observed measurements (Tsen et al., 2012). The dependence of charge distribution on the width of overlapping of grain boundaries may have strong implications for the growth of large-area graphene with enhanced conductivity.